Region: Multiregional

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April 2013, Volume 24, Issue 2

Islamists and Democracy: Cautions from Pakistan

It is easy for Islamists to accept the democratic principle of majority rule when it results in their being elected to power. But the experience of Pakistan warns us that efforts to “Islamize” laws and public life may be hard to reverse even if Islamists are voted out of office.

April 2013, Volume 24, Issue 2

Armies and Revolutions

A key factor in determining the success or failure of revolutions is how the national armed forces react. What are the keys to making accurate predictions about what the soldiers will do when the fate of a regime hangs in the balance?

April 2013, Volume 24, Issue 2

Election Watch

Reports on elections in Armenia, Barbados, Czech Republic, Djibouti, Ecuador, Ghana, Jordan, Kenya, and South Korea.

April 2013, Volume 24, Issue 2

Documents on Democracy

The “Declaration of Free Citizens” published by Vietnamese bloggers in January 2013. Excerpts from Somali president Hassan Sheikh Mohamud’s January 2013 speech at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, D.C. Excerpts from a pastoral letter issued by the Anglican bishop of the Diocese of Colombo, deploring the state of the rule of…

January 2013, Volume 24, Issue 1

Election Watch

Reports on recent elections in Belarus, Burkina Faso, Georgia, Ghana, Kuwait, Lithuania, Montenegro, Romania, Sierra Leone, Slovenia, Ukraine, Vanuatu, and Venezuela.

January 2013, Volume 24, Issue 1

Documents on Democracy

The Democracy Courage Tribute was awarded to human-rights activists in Bahrain at the 7th Assembly of the World Movement for Democracy and accepted on their behalf by Maryam al-khawaja. Several weeks before being shot by masked gunmen, 14-year-old Pakistani activist Malala Yousafzai accepted the Pakistan Centre for Civic Education's Civic Courage Award. Excerpts from Georgian…

October 2012, Volume 23, Issue 4

Election Watch

Reports on recent elections in Angola, Egypt, Hong Kong, Libya, Mexico, Mongolia, Papua New Guinea, Republic of Congo (Brazzaville), Senegal, and Timor-Leste.

October 2012, Volume 23, Issue 4

Documents on Democracy

Excerpts from Aung San Suu Kyi’s Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech, which she gave on June 16 in Oslo, 21 years after she was awarded the prize. An excerpt from imprisoned former Yukos oil company head Mikhail Khodorkovsky’s statement criticizing the Moscow trial of three members of the band Pussy Riot. Portions of Egyptian president…

July 2012, Volume 23, Issue 3

Turkey and Thailand: Unlikely Twins

Turkey and Thailand, two countries at different corners of the Asian landmass, appear at first glance to be an odd couple, but a closer look at their respective political situations reveals surprising parallels.

July 2012, Volume 23, Issue 3

Election Watch

Reports on recent elections in Armenia, Belize, Burma, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Lesotho, Senegal, Serbia, South Korea, and Timor-Leste.

July 2012, Volume 23, Issue 3

Documents on Democracy

Excerpts from former Senegalese president Abdoulaye Wade's concession speech after losing to Macky Sall in the March 25 presidential runoff. Excerpts from newly elected Senegalese president Macky Sall's first national address after his April 3 inauguration. Excerpts from the Ottawa Declaration on Tibet issued on April 29 at the conclusion of the Sixth World Parliamentarians Convention…

April 2012, Volume 23, Issue 2

Ballots, Bullets, and the Bottom Billion

Does recourse to the ballot box spur violence and instability in the world’s poorest countries? Despite the worries of modernization theorists such as Paul Collier, the evidence indicates that, over time, elections are not associated with higher levels of political violence.

April 2012, Volume 23, Issue 2

Election Watch

Reports on recent elections in Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Iran, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Russia, Senegal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Taiwan, and Yemen.

April 2012, Volume 23, Issue 2

Documents on Democracy

Excerpts from Yemeni journalist and human-rights activist Tawakkol Karman's acceptance speech for the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize. Excerpts from a statement issued by the Democratic Republic of Congo’s National Conference of Bishops on the DRC's disputed 2011 presidential election. Excerpts from the concluding statement of the February 22 extraordinary meeting of the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group…

January 2012, Volume 23, Issue 1

Election Watch

Reports on recent elections in Argentina, Bahrain, Bulgaria, Cameroon, The Gambia, Guatemala, Guyana, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liberia, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Poland, Russia, Tunisia, Zambia.

October 2011, Volume 22, Issue 4

Election Watch

Reports on recent elections in Cape Verde, Macedonia, São Tomé and Príncipe, Singapore, Thailand, and Turkey.

October 2011, Volume 22, Issue 4

Documents on Democracy

Excerpts from a statement issued by the Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies and 35 other Egyptian human-rights organizations condemning the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces' campaign against the country's civil society organizations and human-rights groups. Excerpt from a statement by two top EU officials on the August 5 arrest of former Ukrainian prime…

July 2011, Volume 22, Issue 3

Election Watch

Reports on recent elections in Benin, Central African Republic, Chad, Djibouti, Estonia, Haiti, Kazakhstan, Micronesia, Niger, Nigeria, Peru, Singapore, and Uganda.

July 2011, Volume 22, Issue 3

News and Notes

UNESCO World Press Freedom Day; Tibetans Elect New Prime Minister; Statement by Cuban Independent Trade Union Coalition; Citizen Lab Receives Canadian Press Freedom Award; NED’s International Forum

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April 2011, Volume 22, Issue 2

Liberation Technology: Whither Internet Control?

Paradoxically, the rising profile of “liberation technology” may push Internet-control efforts into nontechnological areas—imprisonment rather than censorship, for example—for which there is no easy technical “fix.”

April 2011, Volume 22, Issue 2

FOI Laws Around the World

Are laws guaranteeing citizens freedom of access to public information (FOI laws) among the most important democratic innovations of the last century?

April 2011, Volume 22, Issue 2

Election Watch

Reports on recent elections in Belarus, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Haiti, Kosovo, Niger, Samoa, and Uganda.

January 2011, Volume 22, Issue 1

Election Watch

Reports on recent elections in Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Côte d'Ivoire, Egypt, Guinea, Haiti, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Moldova, Tanzania, Tonga, Venezuela.

October 2010, Volume 21, Issue 4

Election Watch

Reports on recent elections in Burundi, Colombia, Ethiopia, Guinea, Philippines, Poland, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Slovakia, and the Solomon Islands.

October 2010, Volume 21, Issue 4

Documents on Democracy

Excerpts from remarks by Swedish foreign minister Carl Bildt, U.S. secretary of state Hillary Clinton, and Jerzy Buzek, president of the European Parliament, given on July 3 at a high-level meeting to mark the tenth anniversary of the the founding of the Community of Democracies. An excerpt from the June 30 inaugural address of Benigno…

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July 2010, Volume 21, Issue 3

Liberation Technology

The Internet, mobile phones, and other forms of “liberation technology” enable citizens to express opinions, mobilize protests, and expand the horizons of freedom. Autocratic governments are also learning to master these technologies, however. Ultimately, the contest between democrats and autocrats will depend not just on technology, but on political organization and strategy.

July 2010, Volume 21, Issue 3

Election Watch

Reports on recent elections in Colombia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Hungary, Iraq, Mauritius, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Togo, and Trinidad and Tobago.

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April 2010, Volume 21, Issue 2

Democracy and Deep Divides

How do democracies deal with the deep divisions created by race, ethnicity, religion, and language? The cases of Canada, India, and the United States show that democratic institutions—notably, competitive elections and independent judiciaries—can bridge divides and build stability, but they must find a way to manage the tension between individual and group equality.

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April 2010, Volume 21, Issue 2

The Ex-Presidents

What makes elected leaders step down at the appointed hour, and what do they have to look forward to once their terms end? A look at the political afterlives of world leaders tells us that the future prospects of presidents and premiers may well affect their behavior while in office.

April 2010, Volume 21, Issue 2

What Makes Legislatures Strong?

A review of The Handbook of National Legislatures: A Global Survey by M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig, and Legislative Power in Emerging African Democracies edited by Joel D. Barkan.

April 2010, Volume 21, Issue 2

Election Watch

Reports on recent elections in Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Dominica, Honduras, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, and Ukraine.

April 2010, Volume 21, Issue 2

Documents on Democracy

Excerpts from a statement by Liu Xiaobo, a leading signatory of Charter 08, who was sentenced on 25 December 2009 to 11 years in prison on charges of "inciting subversion of state power." Excerpts from the inaugural address of Porfirio Lobo, who was sworn in as president of Honduras on January 27. A portion of…

January 2010, Volume 21, Issue 1

Election Watch

Reports on recent elections in Afghanistan, Botswana, Gabon, Honduras, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Romania, Tunisia, and Uruguay.

January 2010, Volume 21, Issue 1

Documents on Democracy, January 2010

Excerpts from Ayman Nour's video message to the National Endowment for Democracy's November 18 conference, "Middle Eastern Democrats and Their Vision of the Future." Selections from Wang Lixiong's speech accepting the International Campaign for Tibet's Light of Truth Award. Wang Lixiong, a Chinese writer, coauthored a 12 March 2008 open letter to the Chinese authorities…

October 2009, Volume 20, Issue 4

Election Watch, October 2009

Reports on recent elections in Albania, Argentina, Bulgaria, Congo (Brazzaville), Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Mauritania, Mexico, and Moldova.

October 2009, Volume 20, Issue 4

Documents on Democracy, October 2009

Excerpts from a June 20 statement (Farsi, English) issued by Iranian opposition candidate Mir Hosein Musavi after the release of the official results of Iran's disputed June 12 presidential election led to protests throughout the country. Excerpts from the Organization of American States' resolution suspending Honduras from the organization in the aftermath of the June…

July 2009, Volume 20, Issue 3

Election Watch, July 2009

Reports on recent elections in Algeria, Ecuador, El Salvador, India, Indonesia, Kuwait, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malawi, Maldives, Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Panama, Slovakia, and South Africa.

July 2009, Volume 20, Issue 3

Documents on Democracy, July 2009

Excerpts from remarks made on March 11 by Xu Youyu, a Charter 08 signatory, as he accepted the People in Need foundation's annual Homo Homini Award on behalf of imprisoned Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo, a leading figure behind Charter 08. Portions of the African Union's March 20 decision on the forced resignation of Madagascar's President…

April 2009, Volume 20, Issue 2

Election Watch

Reports on recent elections in Bangladesh, El Salvador, and Ghana.

April 2009, Volume 20, Issue 2

Documents on Democracy

Excerpts from Charter 08, an open letter signed by more than three-hundred Chinese citizens calling for a political system in China based on human rights and democracy. Portions of a January 10 ECOWAS statement condemning the military coup in Guinea that followed the death of President Lansana Conté on 22 December 2008. Excerpts from the…

January 2009, Volume 20, Issue 1

Election Watch, January 2009

Reports on recent elections in Azerbaijan, Belarus, the Czech Republic, Guinea-Bissau, Lithuania, the Maldives, Romania, Rwanda, Slovenia, Swaziland, Vanuatu, and Zambia.

October 2008, Volume 19, Issue 4

Election Watch

Reports on recent elections in Angola, Cambodia, Grenada, Hong Kong, Macedonia, Mongolia, and Zimbabwe.

July 2008, Volume 19, Issue 3

Election Watch

Reports on recent elections in Bhutan, the Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Georgia, Iran, Kuwait, Macedonia, Malaysia, Montenegro, Nepal, Paraguay, Serbia, South Korea, Taiwan, Tonga, and Zimbabwe.

July 2008, Volume 19, Issue 3

Documents on Democracy

Excerpts from a petition containing "Twelve Suggestions for Dealing with the Tibet Situation," written by 29 Chinese intellectuals after the Chinese government put down protests in Tibet against Beijing's treatment of the Tibetan people. Excerpts from a speech given by European Commission president José Manuel Barroso at the formal launch of the European Foundation for…

April 2008, Volume 19, Issue 2

Election Watch, April 2008

Reports on recent elections in Armenia, Barbados, Belize, Bhutan, Croatia, Djibouti, Georgia, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Russia, South Korea, Serbia, Taiwan, and Thailand.

January 2008, Volume 19, Issue 1

Election Watch, January 2008

Reports on recent elections in Argentina, Croatia, Guatemala, Jordan, Kiribati, Madagascar, Nauru, Oman, Poland, Russia, Sierra Leone, Slovenia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine.

January 2008, Volume 19, Issue 1

Documents on Democracy, January 2008

Excerpt from a Washington Post op-ed written by U Gambira, a pseudonym for the leader of the All-Burma Monks Alliance, on the widespread Burmese protests spearheaded by Buddhist monks in the fall of 2007.   Excerpts from remarks by Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, president of the Republic of Liberia, accepting the National Democratic Institute's W. Averell…

October 2007, Volume 18, Issue 4

Election Watch, October 2007

A report on recent elections in Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville, Guatemala, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, Mali, Morocco, Papau New Guinea, Philippines, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Timor-Leste, Turkey, and Ukraine.

October 2007, Volume 18, Issue 4

Documents on Democracy

Excerpts from the communique summarizing the positions adopted at a postelection Nigerian civil society summit held in April to discuss dissatisfaction with the recent presidential and parliamentary elections. Excerpts from a report from Abuja by IFES Africa Deputy Director Nathan Van Dusen explaining why the Nigerian election results were received without mass protests, despite calls…

July 2007, Volume 18, Issue 3

Election Watch, July 2007

Reports on recent elections in Algeria, Armenia, Bahamas, Benin, Burkina Faso, Congo (Brazzaville), Estonia, Jordan, Mali, Mauritania, Nigeria, Papau New Guinea, Philippines, Senegal, Timor-Leste, and Togo.

July 2007, Volume 18, Issue 3

Documents on Democracy

Excerpts from the Berlin Declaration released by the European Union on March 25, the fiftieth anniversary of the Treaties of Rome which established the European Economic Community. Excerpts from an interview with Thich Quang Do—winner of the 2006 Thorolf Rafto Memorial Prize for Human Rights Defenders—broadcast on March 16 by Radio Free Asia's Vietnamese Service.…

April 2007, Volume 18, Issue 2

Election Results, April 2007

A review of recent elections in Bahrain, Benin, Estonia, Gabon, The Gambia, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mauritania, Saint Lucia, Senegal, Serbia, and Turkmenistan.

April 2007, Volume 18, Issue 2

Documents on Democracy

Full text of an open letter to Russian president Vladimir Putin, signed by more than a hundred public figures from around the world, in response to the decision to close the Society for Russian-Chechen Friendship. Message delivered by Democratic Republic of the Congo president Joseph Kabila, acknowledging his victory after two rounds of elections in…

January 2007, Volume 18, Issue 1

Election Watch, January 2007

A review of recent elections in Bahrain, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Congo (Kinshasa), Ecuador, Gabon, The Gambia, Latvia, Madagascar, Montenegro, Nicaragua, Saint Lucia, Tajikistan, Venezuela, Yemen, and Zambia.

January 2007, Volume 18, Issue 1

Documents on Democracy

Excerpts from remarks delivered at a memorial for Anna Politkovskaya, the Russian journalist and human rights advocate murdered in Moscow on October 7. Excerpts from a statement by the Asian Human Rights Commission, condemning the September 19 military coup in Thailand which ousted Thaksin Sinawatra. Excerpts from a December 1 speech by Felipe Calderón, his…

October 2006, Volume 17, Issue 4

Election Watch, October 2006

A review of recent elections in Congo (Kinshasa), Dominican Republic, Gambia, Guyana, Kuwait, Macedonia, Mexico, Montenegro, Sao Tomé and Príncipe, Seychelles, Slovakia, Yemen, and Zambia.

October 2006, Volume 17, Issue 4

Documents on Democracy

A June 2006 letter from jailed Egyptian politician Ayman Nour, who was sentenced to five years in prison in December 2005 on forgery charges widely viewed as spurious. Excerpts from Timorese leader José Ramos Horta's acceptance speech, following his swearing in as prime minister of Timor-Leste on July 10. Excerpts from Chilean president Michelle Bachelet's…

July 2006, Volume 17, Issue 3

Election Watch, July 2006

A review of recent elections in Belarus, Benin, Chad, Columbia, Comoros, Czech Republic, El Salvador, Fiji, Haiti, Hungary, Peru, Samoa, São Tomé and Príncipe, Singapore, Slovakia, Solomon Islands, Thailand, and Ukraine.

July 2006, Volume 17, Issue 3

Documents on Democracy

Excerpts from Akbar Ganji's June 5 acceptance speech for the annually awarded Golden Pen Award of the World Association of Newspapers. Ganji is a prominent Iranian dissident and journalist, who was released in March after a five-year prison term; his essay was featured in the October 2005 issue. Excerpts from a speech by Nigeria's president…

April 2006, Volume 17, Issue 2

Election Watch, April 2006

A review of recent elections in Belarus, Benin, Bolivia, Cape Verde, Chile, COlombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, Iraq, Palestinian Territories, Samoa, Sïo Tomé & Príncipe, Tanzania, Uganda, Ukraine, and Venezuela.

April 2006, Volume 17, Issue 2

Documents on Democracy

Excerpts from the January 16 inaugural address of Liberia's new president, Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, who has become Africa's first democratically elected female president. Statement by Singaporean democratic activist Chee Soon Juan, the secretary-general of the opposition Singapore Democratic Party, titled Defamation Suits Against the Opposition Must Stop" and issued on March 2. See the Web sites…

January 2006, Volume 17, Issue 1

Election Watch, January 2006

A review of recent elections in Afghanistan, Argentina, Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Chile, Egypt, Gabon, Haiti, Honduras, Kazakhstan, Liberia, Poland, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, and Venezuela.

October 2005, Volume 16, Issue 4

Election Watch, October 2005

A review of recent elections in Afghanistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Burundi, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau, Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Mauritius, Poland, and Suriname.

July 2005, Volume 16, Issue 3

Election Watch, July 2005

A review of recent elections in Bulgaria, Central African Republic, Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau, Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Mongolia, Suriname, Tajikistan, Togo, and Simbabwe.

April 2005, Volume 16, Issue 2

Election Watch, April 2005

A review of recent elections in Central African Republic, Croatia, Ghana, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Maldives, Micronesia, Moldova, Mozambique, Niger, Palestinian Territories, Somaliland, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Ukraine, and Zimbabwe.

January 2005, Volume 16, Issue 1

Election Watch, January 2005

A review of recent elections in Afghanistan, Botswana, Czech Republic, Ghana, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Romania, Slovenia, Taiwan, Tunisia, Ukraine, and Uruguay.

January 2005, Volume 16, Issue 1

Documents on Democracy

An excerpt from a declaration issued by the International Committee for Democracy in Cuba, after its meeting in Prague on September 17-19. An open letter issued by leading European and North American democrats to the heads of state and government of the EU and NATO decrying Russian president Vladimir Putin's series of "reforms" aimed at…

October 2004, Volume 15, Issue 4

Election Watch, October 2004

A review of recent elections in Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Mongolia, Philippines, and Serbia.

July 2004, Volume 15, Issue 3

Election Watch, July 2004

Reports on recent elections in Algeria, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Georgia, Guinea-Bissau, India, Indonesia, Macedonia, Malawi, Malaysia, Panama, Philippines, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa, South Korea, Sri Lanka, and Taiwan.

July 2004, Volume 15, Issue 3

Documents on Democracy

Excerpts from the Alexandria Declaration, a document emanating from a March 2004 conference on Arab reform convened under the auspices of Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak at Egypt's Bibliotheca Alexandrina. Excerpts from an initiative on political reform issued by the first Arab Civil Forum on March 22, meeting in advance of the Arab Summit in Tunis.…

April 2004, Volume 15, Issue 2

Election Watch

Reports on recent elections in Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea, Iran, Russia, and Serbia.

April 2004, Volume 15, Issue 2

Documents on Democracy

Excerpts from a United Nations report on the feasibility of early elections and possible alternatives in Iraq. Excerpts from an inaugural address by Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili delivered in Tbilisi on January 25. Excerpts from a letter signed by more than 100 reformist Iranian parliamentarians criticizing Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei for approving the Guardian…

January 2004, Volume 15, Issue 1

Election Watch

Brief reports on elections in Azerbaijan, Croatia, Georgia, Grenada, Guatemala, Mauritania, Rwanda, and Serbia.

January 2004, Volume 15, Issue 1

Documents on Democracy

Excerpts from a November 2003 interview with Iranian human rights activist Shirin Ebadi, winner of the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize. Excerpts from a September 2003 speech by Hossein Khomeni, grandson of the founder and Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Excerpts from a September 2003 statement issued by Václav Havel, Arpád Göncz, and…

October 2003, Volume 14, Issue 4

Election Watch

Brief reports on elections in Cambodia, Jordan, Kuwait, Mexico, and Rwanda.