The 1989 revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe were the triumph of civic dignity over Leninism. The first decade of postcommunism saw the project of an open society strongly challenged by ethnocratic temptations. The integration into NATO and the EU had a massive influence on the trajectory of the postcommunist countries. In the context of widespread political apathy, the voices of critical intellectuals are still crucial to preserving social equilibrium. The former Soviet bloc has been struggling with a double crisis of history and memory. The most important new idea brought about by the revolutions of 1989 was the rethinking and the restoration of citizenship.