There is evidence that in the case of Russia we are dealing with a civilization in a state of decay which has neither ability nor strength to transform itself. This civilization is not ready to leave the scene peacefully as the Soviet Union did, however. In its quest to reproduce the personalized power system, the Kremlin has turned Russia into a revisionist power. The Russian war with Ukraine could be viewed as an ultimatum to the West demanding recognition of its right to interpret the international rules. The challenge of the Russian Nuclear Petro state at the stage of decay may become the main challenge of the twenty-first century.