ELECTION RESULTS (September–December 2006)
Bahrain: In November 25 elections for the 40-seat House of Deputies, the Wefaq National Islamic Society, a Shi’ite opposition party, won 16 seats. More complete results will be reported in a future issue.
Bosnia and Herzegovina: In the October 1 presidential election, Haris Silajdžić of the Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina (SBiH) was elected as the Muslim member of the tripartite presidency with 63 percent of the Bosniak vote; Nebojša Radmanoviæ of the Alliance of Independent Social Democrats (SNSD) was elected as the Serb member with 53 percent of the Serb vote; and Željko Komšić of the Social Democratic Party (SDP) was elected as the Croat member with 40 percent of the Croat vote. In elections for the 42-member House of Representatives held on the same day, the Party of Democratic Action won 8 seats, SBiH and SNSD each won 7, SDP won 5, and the Serbian Democratic Party won 3.
Brazil: In the October 1 first round of the presidential election, incumbent president Luiz Inácio “Lula” da Silva of the Workers’ Party (PT) won 49 percent of the vote while Geraldo Alckmin of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB) won 41 percent. In the runoff held on October 29, Lula defeated Alckmin with 61 percent. In October 1 elections for 27 seats in the 81-member Federal Senate and for the 513-seat Chamber of Deputies, PT won 2 Senate and 83 Chamber seats; the Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement won 4 Senate and 89 Chamber seats; PSDB won 5 Senate and 65 Chamber seats; and the Liberal Front Party won 6 Senate and 65 Chamber seats.
Bulgaria: In the October 22 first round of the presidential election, incumbent president Georgi Parvanov, an independent supported by the [End Page 179] Bulgarian Socialist Party, won 64 percent and Volen Siderov of the Ataka coalition won 21 percent. Due to low voter turnout, a runoff was held on October 29 in which Parvanov defeated Siderov, winning 76 percent.
Congo (Kinshasa): Following a July 30 first-round election in which Joseph Kabila of the People’s Party for Reconstruction and Development (PPRD) won 45 percent and Jean-Pierre Bemba of the Movement for the Liberation of Congo (MLC) won 20 percent, Kabila defeated Bemba in an October 29 runoff, winning 58 percent. In July 30 legislative elections for the 500-seat National Assembly, PPRD won 111 seats, MLC won 64, and the Unified Lulumbist Party led by Antoine Gizenga won 34. Of the remaining 291 seats, 63 were won by independent candidates.
Ecuador: In an October 15 first-round presidential election, Álvaro Noboa of the National Action Institutional Renewal Party (PRIAN) won 26 percent, Rafael Correa of the Country Alliance won 22 percent, and Gilmer Gutiérrez of the Patriotic Society Party (PSP) won 17 percent. In the November 26 runoff, Correa defeated Noboa, winning around 63 percent. In October 15 elections for the 100-seat National Congress, PRIAN won 28 seats, PSP won 23, the Social Christian Party won 13, and the Democratic Left/Ethics and Democracy Network won 13.
Gabon: Parliamentary elections were scheduled for December 17; results will be reported in a future issue.
The Gambia: In a September 22 presidential election, President Yahya Jammeh of the Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction won 67 percent. Ousainou Darboe, representing a coalition of the United Democratic Party and the National Reconciliation Party, won 27 percent. Halifa Sallah of the National Alliance for Democracy and Development won 6 percent. International observers reported that election conditions were neither free nor fair, citing election fraud and voter intimidation.
Latvia: In October 7 elections for the 100-seat parliament, the ruling coalition of the People’s Party (TP), the Greens’ and Farmers’ Union (ZZS), and the First Party of Latvia–Latvia Way coalition (LC) won 51 seats. The opposition took the remaining 49 seats, with the New Era Party winning 18 seats and the Harmony Center alliance 17.
Madagascar: Presidential and parliamentary elections were scheduled for December 3; results will be reported in a future issue.
Montenegro: On September 10, in the first parliamentary elections since independence, Prime Minister Milo Dukanović’s Democratic Party of Socialists–Social Democratic Party coalition won 41 seats in the 81-seat assembly. The Serbian List, led by the Serb People’s Party, won 12 seats; a coalition led by the Socialist People’s Party won 11; and the Movement for Change won 11. [End Page 180]
Nicaragua: In a presidential election held November 5, Daniel Ortega of the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) was elected with 38 percent of the vote. Eduardo Montealegre of the Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance (ALN) won 29 percent, and José Rizo of the Constitutionalist Liberal Party (PLC) won 26 percent. In legislative elections for 91 seats in the National Assembly held the same day, FSLN won 37 seats, ALN won 30, PLC won 18, and the Sandinista Renewal Movement won 6.
Saint Lucia: Parliamentary elections were scheduled for December 11; results will be reported in a future issue.
Tajikistan: In a presidential election held November 6, President Emomali Rakhmonov of the People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan was reelected, winning 76 percent of the vote. The three main opposition parties boycotted the vote or refused to field candidates.
Venezuela: In a December 3 presidential election, incumbent Hugo Chávez of the Fifth Republic Movement won about 61 percent of the vote, defeating Manuel Rosales of A New Era, who won about 38 percent.
Yemen: In the September 20 presidential election, President Ali Abdallah Salih of the General People’s Congress was reelected with 80 percent of the vote (he has ruled for 28 years). Faisal Bin Shamlan of the opposition coalition Joint Meeting Parties followed with 16 percent. Opposition parties condemned the elections as rigged.
Zambia: In the September 28 presidential election, incumbent president Levy Mwanawasa of the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) was reelected with 42 percent of the vote. Michael Sata of the Patriotic Front (PF) won 29 percent and Hakainde Hichilema of the United Democratic Alliance (UDA) won 25 percent. In legislative elections for the 150-seat National Assembly held the same day, MMD won 73 seats, PF won 43, and UDA won 26 (8 seats go to presidential appointees).
Albania: presidential, July 2007
Algeria: parliamentary, May 2007
Argentina: presidential/legislative, October 2007
Armenia: parliamentary, April 2007
Bahamas: parliamentary, May 2007
Bangladesh: parliamentary, January 2007
Benin: legislative, March 2007
Burkina Faso: parliamentary, May 2007
Cameroon: parliamentary, June 2007
Chad: parliamentary, April 2007 [End Page 181]
Congo (Brazzaville): parliamentary, May 2007
Croatia: parliamentary, November 2007
Estonia: parliamentary, March 2007
Ethiopia: presidential, November 2007
The Gambia: legislative, January 2007
Georgia: parliamentary, November 2007
Guatemala: presidential/legislative, November 2007
Guinea: parliamentary, 2007
Jamaica: parliamentary, October 2007
Jordan: parliamentary, June 2007
Kenya: presidential/legislative, December 2007
Kiribati: presidential, July 2007
Latvia: presidential, June 2007
Lesotho: parliamentary, May 2007
Mali: presidential, April 2007; parliamentary, July 2007
Marshall Islands: legislative, November 2007
Mauritania: parliamentary, 21 January 2007; presidential, 11 March 2007
Montenegro: presidential, May 2007
Morocco: parliamentary, September 2007
Nauru: presidential, June 2007; parliamentary, October 2007
Nigeria: presidential/legislative, 21 April 2007
Oman: parliamentary, October 2007
Pakistan: parliamentary, October 2007
Papua New Guinea: parliamentary, June 2007
Philippines: legislative, May 2007
Qatar: parliamentary, January 2007
Russia: parliamentary, 2 December 2007
Senegal: presidential, February 2007
Serbia: parliamentary, 21 January 2007
Seychelles: legislative, November 2007
Sierra Leone: presidential/legislative, 28 July 2007
Slovenia: presidential, November 2007
South Korea: presidential, December 2007
Taiwan: legislative, December 2007
Timor-Leste: presidential/parliamentary, May 2007
Trinidad and Tobago: parliamentary, October 2007
Turkey: parliamentary, 4 November 2007
Uzbekistan: presidential, 23 December 2007
Election Watch provides reports of recently decided and upcoming elections in developing nations and the postcommunist world. Elections in nondemocratic nations are included when they exhibit a significant element of genuine competition or when they represent an important test of progress toward democracy. Some of the data come from IFES, a private, nonprofit educational and research foundation that assists in monitoring, supporting, and strengthening the mechanics of the electoral process worldwide. For additional information, visit www.ifes.org.