Elections Without Democracy: Thinking About Hybrid Regimes

Larry Diamond

Journal of Democracy, April 2002

Appendix Table 2

 

Election Results in Hybrid Regimes, 1989-2001

 

Country

FH

Rank[1]

Year

Parties

Number of Seats

Percent of popular vote

Algeria

 

5.5

1987 Legislative

/295

 

1995 Presidential

 

 

 

1997 Legislative

/380

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1999 Presidential

National Liberation Front

(only legal party)

 

Liamine Zeroual

Sheikh Mahfoud Nahna

(Islamic Hamas)

 

National Democratic Rally

Movement for a Society of Peace

National Liberation Front

Renaissance Movement

Socialist Forces Front

Rally for Culture and Democracy

Workers’ Party

Progressive Republican Party

Union for Democracy and Liberty

Social Liberal Party

Independents

 

Abdelaziz Bouteflika

Ahmed Taleb Ibrahimi

295

 

 

 

 

 

 

156

69

62

34

20

19

4

3

1

1

11

 

 

 

61%[2]

25%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

73.8%

12.5%

Angola

6

1986 Legislative

289

 

 

1992 Presidential

 

 

 

 

1992 Legislative

/220

 

Popular Liberation Movement of Angola- Party of Labor (MPLA-PT)

(only legal party)

 

Jose Eduardo dos Santos

(MPLA-PT)

Jonas Savimbi

(UNITA)

 

Popular Liberation Movement of Angola- Party of Labor (MPLA-PT)

National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA)

Social Renewal Party

National Front for the Liberation of Angola

Liberal Democratic Party

Angolan Democratic Forum

Angolan National Democratic Party

Democratic Alliance of Angola

Democratic Party for Progress-Angolan National Alliance

Democratic Renewal Party

Party of the Alliance of Youths, Workers, and Farmers of Angola

Social Democratic Party

289

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

129

 

70

 

6

5

 

3

1

1

1

1

 

1

1

 

1

 

 

 

 

49.57%

 

40.07%

 

 

54%

 

34%

Antigua and Barbuda

3

1989 Legislative

/17

 

 

1994 Legislative

/17

 

 

1999 Legislative

/17

Antigua Labor Party (ALP)              

United National Democratic Party                  

Barbuda People’s Movement

 

Antigua Labor Party (ALP)               

United Progressive Party                  

Barbuda People’s Movement

 

Antigua Labor Party (ALP)              

United Progressive Party                  

Barbuda People’s Movement

15

1

1

 

11

5

1

 

12

4

1

 

Armenia

4

1995 Parliamentary[3]

/190

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1996 Presidential

 

 

 

 

1998 Presidential

 

 

1999 Legislative

/131

Republic Bloc                                 

Shamiran Women’s Movement        

Armenian Communist Party            

National Democratic Union of          

Armenia

National Self-Determination Union   

Armenia Revolutionary Federation   

Independents                                    

Vacant       

 

Levon Ter-Petrosian

(Republic Bloc)

Vasken Manukian

(Democratic Union)

 

Robert Kocharian (independent)

Karen Demirchian (Civil Initiative)   

 

Unity Bloc

Communist Party (HKK)

Armenian Revolutionary Federation (HHD)

Right and Unity Bloc

Country of Law

National Democratic Union (AZhM)                              

120

8

7

5

 

3

1

45

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

57

10

8

 

7

6

6

42.7%

16.9%

12.1%

7.5%

 

5.6%

 

 

 

 

52%

 

42%

 

 

59.5%

40.5%

Azerbaijan

5.5

1992 Presidential

 

1993 Presidential

 

1995/6 Legislative

/125

 

 

 

 

1998 Presidential

 

 

 

 

 

 

2000 Legislative

/125

Abdulfaz Elchibey

 

Heydar Aliyev

 

New Azerbaijan Party (YAP)

Azerbaijan Popular Front

Azerbaijan National Independence Party

New Muslim Democratic Party

Vacant

 

Heydar Aliyev (New Azerbaijan Party)

Etibar Mamedov (Azerbaijan National Independence Party)

Nizami Suleymanov (Independent Azerbaijan Party)

 

New Azerbaijan Party (YAP)

Azerbaijan Popular Front (AKC)

Citizen’s Solidarity Party (CSP)

Azerbaijan Communist Party

New Equality Party

Azerbaijan National Independence Party

Others

Independents

 

 

 

 

115

4

3

 

1

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

75

6

3

2

2

2

 

6

29

>60%

 

99%

 

 

10%

9%

 

 

 

 

76.1%

11.6%

 

8.1%

Belarus

6

1994 Presidential

 

 

1995 Legislative[4]

/260

198 filled

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2000 Legislative

/110

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2001 Presidential

Alexander Lukashenko

Vyacheslav Kebich

 

Communist Party of Belarus

Agrarian Party of Belarus

United Civic Party of Belarus

Party of Popular Accord

All-Belarusan Party of People’s Unity and Accord

Belarusan Social Democratic Party

Belarusan Patriotic Movement

Belarusan Ecological Party

Belarusan Green Party

Republican Party of Labor and Justice

Belarusan Peasant’s Party

Belarusan People’s Party

Belarusan Social Sporting Party

Unaffiliated

 

Communist Party of Belarus

Agrarian Party of Belarus

Republican Party of Labor and Justice

Liberal Democratic Party of Belarus

Social Democratic Party of Popular Accord

Belarusian Social Sporting Party

Independents

Vacant

 

Alexander Lukashenko

Uladzimir Hancharyk (Democratic “five”)

 

 

 

42

33

9

8

2

 

2

1

1

1

1

 

1

1

1

95

 

6

5

2

 

1

1

 

1

81

13

>80%[5]

14%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

75.6%

15.4%

Burkina-Faso

4

1992 Legislative[6]

/107

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1997 Legislative

/111

 

 

 

 

 

1998 Presidential

Organization for People’s Democracy-Labor Movement

National Convention of Progressive Patriots-Social Democratic Party

African Democratic Assembly

Alliance for Democracy and Federation

Others

 

Congress for Democracy and Progress (CDP)

Party for Democracy and Progress

African Democratic Rally

Alliance for Democracy and Federation

 

Blaise Compaoré (CDP)

Ram Ouédraogo (Union of Greens for the Development of Burkina)

Frederic Guirma (Front of Refusal of the Democratic African Assembly)

78

 

12

 

6

4

 

7

 

101

 

6

2

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

68.6%

 

10.1%

 

 

 

 

87.5%

6.6%

 

5.9%

 

Cambodia

5.5

1993 Legislative

/120

 

 

 

 

1998 National

Assembly

/122

Funcinpec Party (FP)

Cambodian People’s Party (CPP)

Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party

National Liberation Movement of Kampuchea

 

Cambodian People’s Party

Funcinpec Party

Sam Rainsy Party

58

51

10

1

 

 

64

43

15

45.5%

38.2%

 

 

 

 

41.4%

31.7%

14.3%

Cameroon

6

1988 Legislative

/180

 

1992 Presidential[7]

 

 

 

 

1992 Legislative

/180

 

 

 

 

 

 

1997 Presidential

 

1997 Legislative[8]

/180

Cameroon People’s Democratic Movement (RDPC) (only party)

 

Paul Biya (RDPC)

John Fru Ndi (SDF)

Maigari Bello Boúba (National Union for Democracy and Progress)

 

Democratic Rally of the Cameroon People (RDPC)

National Union for Democracy and Progress

Cameroon People’s Union

Movement for Democracy and the Republic

 

Paul Biya (RDPC)

 

Democratic Rally of the Cameroon People (RDPC)

Social Democratic Front (SDF)

National Union for Democracy and Progress

Cameroonian Democratic Union

Movement for Democracy and the Republic

Movement for the Liberation of Cameroonian Youth

180

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

88

 

68

 

18

6

 

 

 

 

109

 

43

13

 

5

1

 

1

 

 

 

 

39.98%

35.97%

19.22%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

92.6%

Central African Republic

4.5

 

1993 Presidential

 

 

1993 Legislative[9]

/85

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1998 Legislative

/109

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1999 Presidential

Ange-Félix Patassé (MLPC)

Abel Goumba (CFD)

 

Central African People’s Liberation Movement (MLPC)

Consultative Group of Democratic Forces

Patriotic Front for Progress

Alliance for Democracy and Progress

National Convention

Democratic Movement for the Renaissance and Evolution of Central Africa

Central African Democratic Rally

Liberal Democratic Party

Social Democratic Party

Central African Republican Party

Civic Forum

Social Evolution Movement of Black Africa

Independents

 

Liberation Movement of the Central African People (MLPC)

Central African Democratic Rally (RDC)

Movement for Democracy and Development (MDD)

Patriotic Front for Progress (FPP)

Social Democratic Party (PSD)

Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ADP)

Party for National Unity (PUN)

Liberal Democratic Party (PLD)

Democratic Forum for Modernity (FODEM)

Civic Forum

People’s Union for the Republic

Independents

 

Ange-Félix Patassé (MLPC)

André-Dieudonné Kolingba (RDC)

David Dacko (MDD)

 

 

 

 

34

 

17

 

7

6

3

1

 

 

 

13

7

3

1

1

1

 

8

 

47

 

20

 

8

 

7

6

5

 

3

2

2

 

1

1

7

 

53.49%

46.51%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

51.6%

19.3%

11.1%

Chad

5.5

1996 Presidential

 

 

 

 

 

1997 Legislative

/125

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2001 Presidential

Idriss Deby (Patriotic Salvation Front)

Lt. Col. Wadal Abdelkader Kamougue (Union for Renewal and Democracy)

 

Patriotic Salvation Movement

Union for Renewal and Democracy

National Union for Development and Renewal

Union for Democracy and the Republic

Rally for Democracy and Progress

Party for Freedom and Development

National Alliance for Development

Action for Unity and Socialism

National Convention for Social Democracy

Front of Action Forces for the Republic

 

Idriss Deby (Patriotic Salvation Front)

Ngarlejy Yorongar

 

 

 

 

 

 

65

29

15

 

4

3

3

2

2

1

 

1

 

69.1%[10]

30.9%

 

 

 

 

55%

31%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

63.2%

 

16.4%

Colombia

4

1994 Presidential

 

 

1994 Lower House /163

 

 

 

 

 

 

1994 Upper House

/102

 

 

 

1998 Presidential

 

 

1998 Lower House

/161

 

1998 Upper House

/102

Ernesto Samper Pizano (PL)

Andres Pastrana Arango

 

Liberal Party (PL)

Social Conservative Party

Democratic Alliance

National Salvation Movement

Indigenous

Minority

Others

 

Liberal Party

Social Conservative Party

Democratic Alliance

Indigenous

Others

 

Andres Pastrana Arango

Horacio Serpa Uribe

 

Liberal Party (PL)

Social Conservative Party

Others

 

Liberal Party (PL)

Social Conservative Party

National Conservative Movement

Others

 

 

 

89

56

2

2

2

2

10

 

52

21

1

2

26

 

 

 

 

98

52

11

 

51

26

8

17

50.26%

48.15%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

50.34%

46.58%

Comoros

5

1987 Legislative

 

 

1993 Legislative[11]

/42

 

1996 Legislative

/43

 

 

1996 Presidential

Union for Comoran Progress

(only party)

 

Rally for Democracy and Renewal

Forum for National Recovery

 

 

National Rally for Development

National Front for Justice

Independents

 

Mohamed Taki Abdulkarim

42

 

 

24

18

 

 

39

3

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

64%[12]

Congo (Brazzaville)

4.5

1989 Legislative

 

 

 

1992 Presidential

 

 

1993 Assembly[13]

/125

Congolese Labor Party (PCT)

PCT affiliated groups

unaffiliated

 

Pascal Lissouba[14]

Bernard Kolelas

 

Presidential Tendency

Pan-African Union for Social Democracy

Rally for Democracy and Development

Union of Democratic Forces

Congolese Party for Reconstruction

Union for Congolese Democracy

Union for Development and Social Progress

Others

Opposition Coalition

Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development

Congolese Labor Party

Rally for Democracy and Social Progress

Union for Democratic Renewal

Pro-PCT independent

 

59

66

8

 

 

 

 

65

47

 

6

 

3

2

1

1

 

5

56

28

 

15

10

 

2

1

 

 

 

 

61%

39%

Cote D'Ivoire

4.5

1985 Legislative

/175

 

1990 Presidential

 

 

1990 Legislative

/175

 

 

 

1995 Presidential

 

 

1995 Legislative

(including 1996

by-elections)

/175

 

2000 Presidential

 

 

2000 Legislative

/196

Democratic Party of the Ivory Coast (PDCI)

 

Félix Houphouët-Boigny

Laurent Gbagbo (FPI)

 

Democratic Party of the Ivory Coast

Ivorian Popular Front (FPI)

Ivorian Worker’s Party

Independents

 

Henri Konan Bedié (Democratic Party of the Ivory Coast)

 

Democratic Party of the Ivory Coast

Rally of Republicans

Ivorian Popular Front

 

 

Laurent Gbagbo (FPI)

Robert Guéï

 

Popular Front Party (FPI)

Democratic Party (PDCI-RDA)

Ivorian Workers Party (PIT)

175

 

 

 

 

 

163

9

1

2

 

 

 

 

148[15]

14

13

 

 

 

 

 

96

77

4

 

 

 

81.7%

18.3%

 

 

 

 

 

 

>90%[16]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

59.4%

32.7%

Djibouti

4.5

1993 Presidential

 

 

1997 Legislative[17]

/65

 

1999 Presidential

 

Hassan Gouled

Mohamed Jama

 

People’s Rally for Progress (RPP)/

Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD)

 

Ismael Omar (RPP)

Moussa Ahmed

 

 

 

65

60.76%

22.03%

 

78.6%

 

 

 

74.44%

25.56%

East Timor

4

2001 Legislative

/88

Revolutionary Front of an Independent East Timor (Fretilin)

Democratic Party (PD)

Social-Democratic Party (PSD)

Timorese Social Democratic Association (ASDT)

Timorese Democratic Union (UDT)

National Timorese Party (PNT)

Klibur Oan Timor Asuwain (KOTA)

People’s Party of Timore (PPT)

Christian Democratic Party (PCD)

Socialist Party of Timor (PST)

Liberal Party (PL)

Christian Democratic Party of Timor (PCDT)

55

 

7

6

6

 

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

 

1

57.4%[18]

 

8.7%

8.2%

7.8%

Egypt

6

1987 Legislative

 

 

 

 

 

 

1990 Legislative

/454

 

 

 

1995 Legislative

/454

 

 

 

 

 

2000 Legislative

/454

National Democratic Party (NDP)

“Islamists”

Socialist Labor Party (SLP)

Liberal Socialist Party

New Wafd Party

Independents

 

National Democratic Party (NDP)

National Progressive Unionist Party

Independents

 

 

National Democratic Party (NDP)

New Wafd Party

National Progressive Unionist Party

Liberal Socialist Party

Nasserist Party

Independents

 

National Democratic Party (NDP)

New Wafd Party

National Progressive Unionist Party

Nasserist Party

346

37

20

3

35

7

 

348

6

83

 

 

317

6

5

1

1

114

 

388[19]

7

6

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

72%

 

Equatorial Guinea

6.5

1993 Legislative

/80

 

 

 

 

 

1996 Presidential

 

1999 Legislative

/80

 

 

Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea (PDGE)

Social Democratic and Popular Convention

Social Democratic Union

Liberal Democratic Convention

 

Teodoro Obiang (PDGE)

 

Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea (PDGE)

People’s Union (UP)

Convergence for a Social Democracy (CPDS)

68

 

6

 

5

1

 

 

 

75

 

4

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

97.85%

 

85.5%

 

6.4%

5.3%

Ethiopia

5.5

1987 Legislative

 

1994 Legislative

/547

 

 

 

2000 Legislative

/547

Workers Party of Ethiopia (WPE)

 

Ethiopian Revolutionary People’s Democratic Front (EPRDF)

Others

Independents

 

Ethiopian Revolutionary People’s Democratic Front (EPRDF)

 

 

483

 

46

8

 

479

 

Fiji

3.5

2001 Lower House

/71

Fiji Labor Party

United Fiji Party

National Federation Party

Conservative Alliance Party

New Labor Unity Party

United General Party

Independents

27

32

1

6

2

1

2

 

Gabon

4.5

1985 Legislative

 

1990 Legislative[20]

/120

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1993 Presidential

 

 

1996/7 Legislative[21]

/120

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1998 Presidential

 

 

 

2001 Legislative

Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG)

 

Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG)

National Rally of Woodcutters (RNB)

Gabonese Progress Party (PGP)

National Rectification Movement—Originals

Gabonese Socialist Union

Union of Gabonese People

Circle for Renovation and Progress

 

El Hadj Omar Bongo

Paul Mba Abessole (RNB)

 

Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG)

National Rally of Woodcutters (RNB)

Gabonese Progress Party (PGP)

Circle of Liberal Reformers

Gabonese Socialist Union

African Forum for Reconstruction

Circle for Renovation and Progress

Congress for Democracy and Justice

Democratic and Republican Alliance

Union of Gabonese People

National Rectification Movement—Originals

Rally for Democracy and Progress

Independents

 

Omar Bongo (PDG)

Pierre Mamboundou (Union of Gabonese People)

 

Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG)

National Rally of Woodcutters (RNB)

Gabonese Progress Party (PGP)

Social Democratic Party

Union of the People of Gabon

Independents

Vacant

111

 

63

20

 

18

7

 

4

4

1

 

 

 

 

82

12

 

8

3

2

1

1

1

 

1

 

1

1

 

1

6

 

 

 

 

 

85

6

 

3

2

1

11

12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

51.18%

26%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

66.6%

17%

 

Gambia

5

1987 Legislative

 

 

1992 Presidential

 

1992 Legislative

/50  36 elected

 

 

 

1996 Presidential[22]

 

 

 

1997 Legislative

/50

 

 

 

 

 

 

2001 Presidential

 

 

 

2002 Legislative

/53

People’s Progressive Party (PPP)

National Convention Party (NCP)

 

Dawda Jawara (PPP)

 

People’s Progressive Party (PPP)

National Convention Party (NCP)

Gambia People’s Party (GPP)

Independents

 

Yahya Jammeh (Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction)

Ousainou Darboe (UDP

 

Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction

United Democratic Party (UDP)

National Reconstruction Party

People’s Democratic Organization for Independence and Socialism

Independents

 

Yahya Jammeh

Ousainou Darbou

Hamat Bah

 

Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction

Others

Appointed

31

5

 

 

 

25

6

2

3

 

 

 

 

 

33

 

7

2

1

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

45

 

3

5

 

 

 

58.5%

 

 

 

 

 

 

56%

 

36%

 

52%

 

34%

 

 

 

 

 

52.96%

32.67%

7.80%

Georgia

4

1995 Presidential

 

1995 Legislative[23]

/235

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1999 Legislative

/235

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2000 Presidential

 

 

Eduard Shevardnadze (SMK)

 

Citizens Union of Georgians

National Democratic Party

All Georgian Union of Revival

Progress Bloc

Socialist Party of Georgia

Political Union Tanadgoma

Bloc Reformers Union of Georgia-National Concord

Union of Georgian Traditionalists

All-Georgian Political Association Lemi

Union for a Law Governed State

United Republican Party

Abkhazian Delegates

Independents

 

Citizen’s Union of Georgians (SMK)

All-Georgian Union for Revival (SSAK)

Industry Will Save Georgia (IWSG)

Georgian Labor Party (Shromis)

National-Democratic Alliance-Third Way (NDA-III)

Popular Party-Didgori (PP-D)

United Communist Party and Worker’s Union (UCP-WU)

Non-partisans

Abkhazian Delegates

 

Eduard Shevardnadze (SMK)

Dzhumber Patiashvili

Kartlos Gharibashvili (SEKP)

 

 

107

34

32

4

4

3

2

 

2

1

 

1

1

12

29

 

130

64

 

15

2

 

 

 

 

 

16

12

 

 

 

 

76.8%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

41.7%

25.2%

 

7.1%

6.7%

4.5%

 

4.1%

1.4%

 

 

 

 

79.8%

16.7%

0.3%

Guinea

5.5

1980 Legislative

 

1995 Legislative

/114

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1998 Presidential

 

 

 

 

Democratic Party of Guinea (PDG)

 

Party of Unity and Progress

Rally of the Guinean People

Party of Renewal and Progress

Union for the New Republic

National Union for the Prosperity of Guinea

Democratic Party of Guinea—African Democratic Rally

Democratic Party of Guinea—Ahmed Sekou Touré

Djama Party

Union for the Progress of Guinea

 

Lansana Conte

Mamadou Boye Ba (Union for Progress and Renewal)

Alpha Condé (Rally of the Guinean People)

210

 

71

19

9

9

2

 

1

 

1

 

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

56.1%

24.6%

 

16.6%

Guinea-Bissau

4.5

1994 Presidential

 

 

1994 Legislative

/100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1999 Presidential

 

 

1999 Legislative

/102

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

João Bernardo Vieira (PAIGC)

Kumba Yalla (PRS)

 

African Independence Party of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC)

Resistance of Guinea-Bissau Bafatá Movement (RGB)

Party for Social Renewal (PRS)

Union for Change (UM)

Front of Struggle for the Liberation of Guinea

 

Kumba Ialá (PRS)

Malam Bacai Sanhá (PAIGC)

 

Party for Social Renewal (PRS)

Resistance of Guinea-Bissau Bafatá Movement (RGB)

African Independence Party of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC)

Democratic Alliance (AD)

Union for Change (UM)
Social Democratic Party (PSD)

Democratic Social Front (FDS)

National Union for Democracy and Progress (UNDP)

 

 

 

62

 

 

19

 

12

6

1

 

 

 

 

 

38

28

 

24

 

 

4

3

3

1

1

46.0%

21.9%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

72.0%

28.0%

 

 

Haiti

6

2000 Presidential

 

 

 

2000 Lower House

/83

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2000 Upper House

/27

Jean-Bertrand Aristide (FL)

Arnold Dumas

Evan Nicolas

 

Lavalas Family (FL)

Christian Movement for Fighting a New Haiti (Mochrena)

Open the Gate Party (PLB)

Space of Concertation (E)

Grandans Resistance Coordination (Eskanp-Korega)

Organization of Struggling People (OPL)

Independents

 

Water Fall Family (FL)

Open the Gate Party (PLB)

Others

 

 

 

 

73

3

 

2

2

1

 

1

 

1

 

26

1

1

91.8%

2.0%

1.6%

Indonesia

3.5

1987 Legislative

 

 

 

1992 Legislative[24]

/400 elected

100 appointed by president

 

1997 Legislative

/425

 

 

1999 Legislative

/462

Golkar

United Development Party

Indonesian Democratic Party

 

Golkar

United Development Party

Indonesian Democratic Party

 

 

 

Golkar

United Development Party

Indonesian Democratic Party

 

Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P)

Golkar Party

National Awakening Party

National Mandate Party

United Development Party

299

61

40

 

281

63

56

 

 

 

325

89

11

 

153

 

120

51

34

58

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

74.5%

22.43%

3.07%

 

35.4%

 

19.7%

16.5%

6.9%

10.1%

Iran

6

1997 Presidential

 

2000 Legislative

/270

 

 

 

 

2001 Presidential

Mohammad Khatami

 

2nd Khordad Front (Reformers)

The Followers of the Line of Imam and the Leader (Conservatives)

Executives of Construction (Centrists)

 

Mohammed Khatami

Ahmad Tavakoli

Ali Shamkhani

 

 

189

69%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

78.3%

15.9%

2.7%

Jordan

5

1989 Legislative

/80

 

 

 

1993 Legislative

/80

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1997 Legislative[25]

/80

Muslim Brotherhood

“Islamists”

“leftish opposition”

“tribal groups”

 

Islamic Action Front

Jordanian National Alliance Party

Awakening Party

Homeland Party

Pledge Party

Jordanian Arab Democratic Party

Future Party

Jordanian Arab Socialist Baath Party

Jordanian Progressive Democratic Party

Jordanian People’s Democratic Party

Jordanian Socialist Democratic Party

Independents

 

“Tribal Candidates”

“Islamists”

20

12

11

17

 

16

4

2

2

2

2

1

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

47

 

68

12

 

Kazakhstan

5.5

1991 Presidential

 

1994 Legislative

/177

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1995 Legislative

/67

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1999 Presidential[26]

 

 

 

 

1999 Legislative

/77

Nursultan Nazarbayev

 

People’s Unity of Kazakhstan Union

Confederation of Kazakh Trade Unions

People’s Congress of Kazakhstan

Socialist Party of Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan Peasant’s Union

Republican People’s Slavic Movement-Harmony

Others

“State List”

independents

vacant

 

People’s Party of Kazakhstan Unity

December National Democratic Party

Kazakhstan Agrarian Union

Confederation of Kazakh Trade Unions

Communist Party of Kazakhstan

Others

 

Nursultan Nazarbayeve (Party of People’s Unity of Kazakhstan)

Serikbolsyn Abdildin (Communist Party of Kazakhstan)

Gany Kasymov

 

Republic Political Party Otan (OTAN)

Civil Party of Kazakhstan

Communist Party of Kazakhstan (CPK)

Popular Cooperative Party of Kazakhstan

 

 

33

11

 

9

8

4

4

 

6

42

59

1

 

 

24

12

5

5

 

2

19

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23

13

3

 

1

99%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

79.8%

 

11.7%

 

4.6%

Kenya

5.5

1988 Legislative

 

 

1992 Presidential

 

 

 

 

1992 Legislative

/188

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1997 Presidential[27]

 

 

1997

Legislative[28]

/222

Kenya African National Union (KANU)

 

Daniel arap Moi (KANU)

Kenneth Matiba

Mwai Kibaki (DP)

Oginga Odinga (FORD-K)

 

Kenya African National Union (KANU)

Forum for the Restoration of Democracy—Asili (FORD-A)

Forum for the Restoration of Democracy—Kenya (FORD-K)

Democratic Party (DP)

Kenya Social Congress

Kenya National Congress

Party of Independent Candidates of Kenya

 

Daniel arap Moi (KANU)

Mwai Kibaki (DP)

Oginga Odinga (NDP)

 

Kenya African National Union

Democratic Party

National Development Party

Forum for the Restoration of Democracy—Kenya

Social Democratic Party

Safina

Forum for the Restoration of Democracy—People

Shirikisho

Kenya Social Congress

Forum for the Restoration of Democracy—Asili

123

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

31

 

31

 

23

1

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

113

41

22

18

 

16

6

3

 

1

1

1

 

 

 

 

36.4%

26%

19.5%

17.5%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

41%

31%

11%

Kuwait

4.5

1999 Legislative

/50

Only non-partisans allowed to run

 

 

Kyrgyzstan

5.5

1995 Presidential

 

2000 Presidential

Askar Akayev

 

Askar Akayev

Omurbek Tekebaev

Almaz Atembaev

 

75%

 

74.49%

13.88%

6.00%

Lesotho

4

1993 Legislative[29]

/65

 

1998 Legislative

/80

 

Basotho Congress Party

 

 

 

Lesotho Congress for Democracy (LCD)

Basotho National  Party (BNP)

Vacant

65

 

 

 

78

 

1

1

 

 

 

 

60.7%

 

24.5%

 

Liberia

6

1997 Presidential

 

 

 

1997 Upper House

/26

 

1997 Lower House

/64

Charles Taylor (NPP)

Ellen Sirleaf (UP)

Alhaji Kromah (ALCOP)

 

National Patriotic Party (NPP)

Unity Party (UP)

All Liberia Coalition Party (ALCOP)

 

National Patriotic Party (NPP)

Unity Party (UP)

All Liberia Coalition Party (ALCOP)

Alliance of  Political Parties

United People’s Party (UPP)

Liberian People’s Party (LPP)

 

 

 

 

21

3

2

 

49

7

3

2

2

1

75.3%

9.6%

4%

Macedonia

4

1994 Presidential

 

1994 Legislative

/120

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1998 Legislative

/120

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1999 Presidential

 

Kiro Gligorov (SDSM)

 

Social Democratic League of Macedonia (SDSM)

Reform Forces of Macedonia-Liberal Party

Party for Democratic Prosperity

Socialist Party of Macedonia

People’s Democratic Party

Democratic Party of Macedonia

Democratic Party of Turks in Macedonia and Party for Democratic Action-Islamic Way

Party for Total Emancipation of Romanies in Macedonia

Social Democratic Party of Macedonia

Independents

 

Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity (VMRO-DMPNE) and Democratic Alternative (DA)

Social Democratic League of Macedonia (SDSM)

Democratic Prosperity Party (PDP)

Democratic Party of Albanians (PDS)

Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and Democratic Party of Macedonia (DPM)

Others

 

 

Tito Petkovski (SDSM)

Boris Trajkovski (VMRO-DMPNE)

 

 

58

 

29

 

10

8

4

1

1

 

 

1

 

1

 

7

 

59

 

 

 

 

29

 

14

11

4

 

 

3

 

78.4%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

45.9%

52.9%

Malaysia

5

1986 Legislative

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1990 Legislative

/180

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1995 Legislative[30]

/192

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1999 Legislative

/193

National Front

United Malays National Organization

Malaysian Chinese Association

Malaysian Indian Congress

Malaysian People’s Movement

Sarawak National Front Parties

Sabah National Front Parties

Democratic Action Party

Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party

Independents

 

National Front

United Malays National Organization

Malaysian Chinese Association

Malaysian Indian Congress

Malaysian People’s Movement

Sabah National Front Parties

Sarawak National Front Parties

Democratic Action Party

Sabah United Party

Spirit of ‘46

Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party

Independents

 

National Front

United Malays National Organization

Malaysian Chinese Association

Sarawak National Front Parties

Malaysian Indian Congress

Malaysian People’s Movement

Sabah National Front Parties

Democratic Action Party (DAP)

Sabah United Party (PBS)

Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS)

Spirit of ‘46

 

Barisan Nasional (BN)

Democratic Action Party

National Justice Party

Pan Malaysian Islamic Party

Bersatu Sabah (PBS)

148

83

17

6

5

22

15

24

1

4

 

 

127

71

 

18

6

5

6

21

20

14

8

7

4

 

162

88

 

30

26

7

7

4

9

8

7

6

 

148

10

5

27

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

63%

Maldives

5.5

1999 Legislative

/48

No parties

 

 

Mauritania

5

1992 Legislative

/79

 

 

 

 

1996 Legislative[31]

/79

 

 

 

1997 Presidential

 

 

2001 Legislative

/81 (79?)

Democratic and Social Republican Party (PRDS)

Mauritanian Renewal Party

Rally for Democracy and Unity

Independents

 

Democratic and Social Republican Party (PRDS)

Action for Change

Rally for Democracy and Unity

Independents

 

Maaouya Ould Sid’Ahmed Taya (PRDS)

 

Democratic and Social Republican Party (PRDS)

Union of Forces for Progress (UFP)

Action for Change (AC)

Rally for Democracy and Unity (RDU)

Mauritanian Popular Front (MPF)

67

 

1

1

10

 

70

 

1

1

7

 

 

 

 

64

 

4

4

3

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

90.2%

Mexico

2.5

1991 Upper House

/64

 

1991 Lower House

/500

 

 

1994 Presidential

 

 

 

1994 Upper House

/128

 

 

 

1994 Lower House

/500

 

 

 

 

1997 Senate[32]

/128

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1997 Chamber of Deputies[33]

/500

 

 

 

 

 

 

2000 Presidential

 

 

 

 

 

2000 Senate

/128

 

 

 

2000 Chamber of Deputies

/500

Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)

National Democratic Front

 

Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)

National Democratic Front

National Action Party (PAN)

 

Ernesto Zedillo (PRI)

Diego Fernandez de Cevallos (PAN)

 

Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)

National Action Party (PAN)

Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD)

 

Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)

National Action Party (PAN)

Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD)

Workers Party (PT)

 

Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)

National Action Party (PAN)

Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD)

Mexican Green Ecologist Party (PVEM)

Workers Party (PT)

 

Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)

National Action Party (PAN)

Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD)

Mexican Green Ecologist Party (PVEM)

Workers Party (PT)

 

Vicente Fox (Alliance for Change-PAN+PVEM)

Francisco Labastida (PRI)

Cuahtemoc Cardenas (Alliance for Mexico)

 

Alliance for Change

Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)

Alliance for Mexico

 

Alliance for Change

Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)

Alliance for Mexico

60

 

4

 

260

 

139

101

 

 

 

 

 

95

 

25

8

 

 

300

 

119

71

 

10

 

77

 

33

16

 

1

 

1

 

239

 

121

125

 

8

 

7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

51

61

 

17

 

221

211

 

68

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

50.13%

26.69%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

43.43%

 

36.88%

17.00%

Morocco

5

1984 Legislative

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1993 Legislative[34]

/333

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1997 Legislative[35]

/325

Constitutional Union

National Assembly of Independents

Popular Movement

Istiqlal

Socialist Union of Popular Forces

National Democratic Party

Moroccan Labor Union

Democratic Confederation of Labor

General Union of Moroccan Workers

Party of Progress and Socialism

Organization for Democratic and Popular Action

Social Center Party

 

Constitutional Union

Socialist Union of Popular Forces

Popular Movement

Istiqlal

National Assembly of Independents

Popular National Movement

National Democratic Party

Party of Progress and Socialism

Democratic Party for Independence

Action Party

Organization of Democratic and Popular Action

Independents

 

Socialist Union of Popular Forces (USFP)

Constitutional Union (UC)

National Assembly of Independents (RNI)

Popular Movement (MP)

Independence Party (IP)

Democratic and Social Movement (MDS)

Popular National Movement (MNP)

National Democratic Party (PND)

Popular Constitutional and Democratic Movement (MPCD)

Democratic Forces Front (FFD)

Party of Renewal and Progress (PPS)

Socialist Democratic Party (PSD)

Organization for Popular Democratic Action (OADP)

Action Party (PA)

Democratic Party for Independence (PDI)

83

61

47

41

36

24

5

3

2

2

1

 

1

 

54

52

51

50

41

25

24

10

9

2

2

 

4

 

57

 

50

46

 

40

32

32

 

19

10

9

 

9

9

5

4

 

2

1

 

 

Mozambique

3.5

1994 Presidential

 

 

 

 

1994 Legislative

/250

 

 

 

 

1999 Presidential

 

 

 

 

1999 Legislative

/250

 

Joaquim Alberto Chissamo (Frelimo)

Afonso Marceta Macacho Dhlakama (Renamo)

 

Liberation Front of Mozambique (Frelimo)

Mozambican National Resistance (Renamo)

Democratic Union of Mozambique

 

Joaquim Alberto Chissamo (Frelimo)

Afonso Marceta Macacho Dhlakama (Renamo)

 

Liberation Front of Mozambique (Frelimo)

Mozambican National Resistance (Renamo)

 

 

 

 

 

129

 

112

 

9

 

 

 

 

 

 

133

 

117

53.7%

33.7%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

52.3%

 

47.7%

 

 

48.5%

 

38.8%

 

Niger

4

1989 Legislative

 

 

 

1993 Presidential

 

 

 

 

 

1993 Legislative

/83

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1995 Legislative

/83

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1996 Presidential

 

 

 

 

 

1996 Legislative[36]

/83

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1999 Presidential

 

 

1999 Legislative

/83

National Movement for the Developing Society (MNSD)

(only party)

 

Mahamane Ousmane (Democratic and Social Convention)

Tandja Mamadou (National Movement for a Developing Society)

 

National Movement for a Developing Society-Victory

Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama

Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism-Tarayya

Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Progress-Zamanlahia

Party for National Unity and Development-Salama

Union for Democracy and Social Progress-Amana

Nigerien Social Democratic Party-Alheri

Nigerien Democratic Front-Mountounchi

Union of Democratic Patriots and Progressives-Shamuwa

Democratic Union of Progressive Forces-Sawaba

 

National Movement for a Developing Society-Victory

Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama

Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism-Tarayya

Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Progress-Zamanlahia

Party for National Unity and Development-Salama

Union for Democracy and Social Progress-Amana

Nigerien Social Democratic Party-Alheri

Nigerien Democratic Front-Mountounchi

Union of Democratic Patriots and Progressives-Shamuwa

Democratic Union of Progressive Forces-Sawaba

 

Ibrahim Bare

Mahamane Ousmane

Tandja Mamadou

Mahamadou Issoufou

Moumouni Amadou

 

National Union of Independents for Democratic Renewal (UNIRD)

Nigerian Alliance for Democracy and Social Progress—Zaman Lahiya (ANDPS-Z)

Union of Democratic Patriots and Progressives—Chamoua (UPDP-S)

Union for Democracy and Social Progress—Amana (UDPS-A)

Party for People’s Dignity—Daraja

(DARAJA)

Workers’ Movement Party—Albarka

(PMT-A)

Movement for Democracy and Progress—Alkawaly (MDP-A)

Independents

 

Tandja Mamadou

Mahamadou Issoufou

 

National Movement for a Developing Society (MNSD)

Democratic and Social Convention

Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism

Rally for Democracy and Progress

Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Progress

93

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

29

 

24

 

12

 

9

 

3

 

2

 

2

 

1

 

1

 

0

 

 

29

 

22

 

13

 

11

 

0

 

1

 

1

 

2

 

2

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

56

 

8

 

 

4

 

3

 

3

 

2

 

1

 

3

 

 

 

 

38

 

17

16

 

8

4

 

 

 

 

54%

 

46%